Sound pressure and particle velocity measurements from marine pile driving with bubble curtain mitigation
Keywords:Acoustic variables measurement, Acoustic waves, Gradient methods, Marine applications, Sensors, Underwater acoustics, digital acquisition system, Gradient sensors, Pressure gradient method
AbstractMeasurement of underwater acoustic pressure and acoustic particle velocity was performed near marine pile driving work with bubble curtain mitigation to determine the effectiveness of the bubble curtain at reducing acoustic particle velocity levels and sound pressure levels. Euler's linearized momentum equation can be used to show that the acoustic particle velocity is related to the time integral of the acoustic pressure gradient. Acoustic particle velocity from pile driving was measured by the pressure gradient method using a custom built, multi-component hydroacoustic sensor designed by JASCO. The pressure gradient sensor was composed of a pyramidal frame supporting four Reson TC4043 hydrophones and a JASCO AIM attitude/depth sensor. Pressure signals from the four hydrophones were sampled at 25 kHz per channel, with 16-bit resolution, using a laptop PC based digital acquisition system. Bubble curtain proved effective in mitigating both sound pressure and particle velocity levels generated by the pile driving.
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