Measurements of propagation of sound over water at low to mid frequencies applicable to wind turbine noise calculation

Tim Kelsail


The ISO 9613(2) standard for calculation of noise propagation over land was written excluding propagation over water. A series of measurements of sound at various distances from a large highway bridge have been taken and are compared to ISO 9613(2) calculations for the same scenario. They show that for lower frequencies, which are the most important for offshore wind turbine calculations, ISO 9613(2) provide a good approximation to the measured results and may prove suitable for offshore wind turbine noise predictions.


Wind turbines; Lower frequencies; Measured results; Mid-frequency; Noise propagation; Offshore wind turbines; Over water; Propagation of sounds; Wind turbine noise

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