Effects of Modality and Linguistic Materials on Memory in Younger and Older Adults

  • April Emily Pereira University of Toronto
  • Jenna Pattison University of Toronto
  • Kathleen Pichora-Fuller University of Toronto
  • Sherri Smith Duke University

Abstract

Audiologists can test memory with auditory or visual stimuli. Visual tests are immune to hearing loss, whereas auditory tests are ecologically relevant. In a previous study, an auditory test was preferred to a visual test because it yielded a greater range of working memory scores; however, the linguistic properties of the materials were not matched across tests. In the current study, we compared auditory and visual tests with matched word-level and sentence-level materials. All participants completed four tests (2 modalities x 2 linguistic levels) with counter-balanced order of conditions. In each test, 100 items were presented, with five trials in each of setsizes (2, 3, 4, 5, 6). The number of words correctly recognized, judged and recalled was measured. In part 1 of the study, 32 younger adults were tested and linguistic level and modality effects were confirmed. In part 2 of the study, 32 older adults were tested and linguistic level effects were found. Across age, recall decreased with increasing setsize. There was a significant main effect of linguistic-level (word > sentence) on recall. Notably, younger adults performed just as well as older adults on both auditory tests, whereas they performed worse on both visual tests.

Author Biographies

April Emily Pereira, University of Toronto

Department of Psychology, Masters Student

Jenna Pattison, University of Toronto

Department of Psychology

Kathleen Pichora-Fuller, University of Toronto

Department of Psychology

Sherri Smith, Duke University

School of Medecin, Division of Head and Neck Surgery and Communication Sciences

Published
2019-10-16
How to Cite
1.
Pereira AE, Pattison J, Pichora-Fuller K, Smith S. Effects of Modality and Linguistic Materials on Memory in Younger and Older Adults. Canadian Acoustics [Internet]. 2019Oct.16 [cited 2019Nov.21];47(3):100-1. Available from: //jcaa.caa-aca.ca/index.php/jcaa/article/view/3347
Section
Proceedings of the Acoustics Week in Canada

Most read articles by the same author(s)