Performance of three acoustical methods for localizing whales in the Saguenay - St. Lawrence Marine Park
Keywords:Communication channels (information theory), Monte Carlo methods, Parks, Ray tracing, Speed, Ultrasonic velocity measurement, Uncertainty analysis, Marine parks, Monte-Carlo simulations
AbstractThree algorithms are explored to localize fin whale calls recorded from a large-aperture hydrophone array deployed in the Saguenay - St. Lawrence Marine Park. The methods have to cope with varying sound speed in space and time, errors in time differences of arrival (TDoA) measurements in a noisy environment, and often a limited number of hydrophones having recorded a particular event. The array was composed of 5 AURAL autonomous hydrophones with a total aperture of about 40 km, coupled with 2 hydrophones from a small-aperture cabled coastal array. The autonomous hydrophones clock drifts were estimated with a level of uncertainty from timed sources and the coastal array time reference. The calls were then localized by constant-speed hyperbolic fixing, variable-speed isodiachron Monte-Carlo simulations, and a ray-tracing propagation model. The Monte-Carlo simulations generate clouds of possible localizations from the uncertainty in hydrophone positions, TDoAs and the effective horizontal sound speeds along the different source-hydrophone paths. The ray-tracing model produces a fixed grid of TDoAs which can then be consulted to find the likeliest positions of the whales. Results from the different methods are compared and their relative advantages or limitations are discussed.
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