Ultrasound Study of Emphatics, Uvulars, Pharyngeals and Laryngeals in Three Arabic Dialects
Keywords:ultrasound, Arabic dialects, emphatics, uvulars, pharyngeals, laryngeals
ifferent studies show different and to some extent inconsistent mechanisms for the articulation of Arabic uvular, pharyngeal and laryngeal sounds, i.e. gutturals, and emphatic sounds. The current study uses ultrasound imaging of the tongue to examine the articulations involved in guttural and emphatic sounds in three Arabic dialects, Egyptian, Saudi and Palestinian. This investigation attempts to answer the question: what are the tongue shapes during the production of both inherently retracted /?, ?, ?, ?, q/ and secondarily retracted /ð?, s?, t?, d?/ sounds. Articulatory results indicate that these sounds are produced with different tongue root and tongue dorsum retraction mechanisms. Pharyngeals are articulated with tongue root retraction and statistically do not involve significant tongue dorsum retraction. Uvulars and emphatics show tongue root and tongue dorsum retraction with inconsistent tongue root retraction. Laryngeals do not show any significant tongue retraction.
Keywords: ultrasound, Arabic dialects, emphatics, uvulars, pharyngeals, laryngeals
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