Tongue Bracing Robustness Under Perturbation

The Moderating Effect of Language Experience



speech posture, bilingualism, tongue bracing, perturbation


Lateral tongue bracing is a universal speech posture observed across many languages [Gick et al., 2017, JSLHR 60; Liu et al., 2022, JIPA, Phonetica 79]. Previous work has found that under perturbation by 10mm bite-blocks, there is less lateral contact during a speaker’s L2 speech compared to their L1 speech [Bengtson et al., 2023, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 154]. However, the research did not investigate lateral contact without bite-blocks and the effect of this perturbation on posture remains unclear. The present study addresses this by comparing a speaker’s L1 and L2 speech both with and without bite-block perturbation, with the hypothesis that posture during speech movement is more robustly maintained under perturbation with more language experience. Participants will read two short texts in their L1 and L2 separately, both with and without 10mm bite-blocks, and F1/F2 of cardinal vowels will be compared between bite-block conditions for each language. L2 proficiency will be collected for each participant and results will be reported with relevance to posture and speech movement coordination for L1 vs. L2, with implications discussed for proficiency. [Work supported by NSERC].



How to Cite

Purnomo A, Xu C, Maitinsky M, Gick B. Tongue Bracing Robustness Under Perturbation : The Moderating Effect of Language Experience. Canadian Acoustics [Internet]. 2024 May 12 [cited 2024 May 21];52(1). Available from:

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