Judged direction of pairs of octave-related complexes (Shepard tones): Training effects and reversal

Annabel J. Cohen, Michael Lamoureux, Richard Fleming, Debora Dunphy


Each of the octave-complex intervals from 1 to 11 semitones were presented to two groups of listeners, differing in level of musical training. The listeners were then asked to judge the direction of a second tone of each interval relative to the first. Percentage of judgements in each direction was measured for each interval. To determine whether interval direction biassed successive directional judgements, the second order statistics of directional responses were investigated.


Ability testing; Computer music; Loudspeakers; Psychophysiology; Statistical methods; Octave-related complexes; Pitch directional judgements; Second order statistics

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