Modified spread spectrum audio watermarking algorithm

Libo Zhang, Sridhar Krishnan, Heping Ding


The conventional spread spectrum (SS) audio watermarking algorithm and its modification are presented. Audio pieces of different genres, sampled at 44.1 kHz, were tested against the watermarking system. It was found that both the host signal and the attacks act as noise in watermark extraction, the host signals affecting the extraction more severely. It was also found that there is an improvement of about 3dB at bit error rate (BER) of 10-5 in the modified system.


Algorithms; Bit error rate; Computer simulation; Natural frequencies; Signal distortion; Signal processing; Signal receivers; Signal to noise ratio; Spurious signal noise; Vectors; Audio watermarking; Host signals; Mean opinion score (MOS); Spread spectrum (SS); Transmission noise

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