Modified spread spectrum audio watermarking algorithm

Authors

  • Libo Zhang Department of Electrical Engineering, Ryerson University, Toronto, Canada
  • Sridhar Krishnan Department of Electrical Engineering, Ryerson University, Toronto, Canada
  • Heping Ding Inst. for Microstructural Sciences, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Canada

Keywords:

Algorithms, Bit error rate, Computer simulation, Natural frequencies, Signal distortion, Signal processing, Signal receivers, Signal to noise ratio, Spurious signal noise, Vectors, Audio watermarking, Host signals, Mean opinion score (MOS), Spread spectrum (SS), Transmission noise

Abstract

The conventional spread spectrum (SS) audio watermarking algorithm and its modification are presented. Audio pieces of different genres, sampled at 44.1 kHz, were tested against the watermarking system. It was found that both the host signal and the attacks act as noise in watermark extraction, the host signals affecting the extraction more severely. It was also found that there is an improvement of about 3dB at bit error rate (BER) of 10-5 in the modified system.

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Published

2004-09-01

How to Cite

1.
Zhang L, Krishnan S, Ding H. Modified spread spectrum audio watermarking algorithm. Canadian Acoustics [Internet]. 2004 Sep. 1 [cited 2021 Oct. 25];32(3):142-3. Available from: https://jcaa.caa-aca.ca/index.php/jcaa/article/view/1668

Issue

Section

Proceedings of the Acoustics Week in Canada