Effect of headphone type on listening levels and localization abilities of portable audio device users in quiet and traffic noise

I. Ibrahim, R. Malcolmson, M.B. Jennings, M.F. Cheesman


Two studies were conducted to investigate the effects of headphone type and background noise on sound localization abilities and PAD output levels. Four listening conditions were tested under the first study, including an open ear condition and three cost-effective transducers, an ear bud, over-the-ear headphones, and noise-reduction insert earphones. It was observed that localization performance of the participants decreased when they were listening to music through the MP3 player. Four listening conditions were also tested under the second study including an open ear condition and three transducers designed to reduce background noise. These tests also included ER6i insert phones and Sony MDR-NC6 Noise Canceling headphones.


Acoustic noise; Headphones; High pass filters; Loudspeakers; Noise pollution; Piezoelectric transducers; Background noise; Listening levels; Localization performance; MP-3 players; Noise canceling; Output levels; Portable audio; Sound localization; Traffic noise

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